Hajj Badal is when someone deputises another to perform Hajj on their behalf.
Deputer - the one who gives permission to another to perform Hajj on their behalf
Deputy - the one given permission to perform Hajj on behalf of someone else
Hajj Badal has some restrictions:
- The deputer is unable to perform Hajj due to an illness or disability which rendering them permanently incapable or death
- The deputy has performed their own Hajj before
- The deputy only performs Hajj on behalf of one person
- It is permissible to pay the deputy to perform hajj but not permissible for the deputy to profit from the money paid and only takes what they need for the journey
- It is better for a son to do it on behalf of his father or for a relative to do it, although it is permissible for non-relatives to do it
- A man is permitted to do Hajj Badal for a woman and vice versa
- If a Muslim dies and they have not performed Hajj but had the means, then it is obligatory to perform Hajj on their behalf from the wealth they left behind
- The deputy should have a good knowledge of Hajj and be religiously committed
Examples of when Hajj Badal would not be permissible would be if you unable to perform Hajj due to being poor, suffer from an illness from which it is hoped you will recover or are unable due to political or security circumstances.
When they do this Hajj on behalf of someone, they themselves will, inshaaAllah, gain the reward for Hajj as well as the one for who it was done.
If someone did Hajj in their life, then doing an extra Hajj after their death on their behalf is not permissible according to some scholars but there is a difference of opinion on this.